Instructions for Contributors

The Journal of Foraminiferal Research invites scholarly contributions dealing with all aspects of the foraminifera. It also welcomes those manuscripts which may only secondarily involve foraminifera as part of stratigraphic or ecologic studies with allied organisms. All papers will be refereed, but acceptance is the responsibility of the Editor. Accepted manuscripts that conform closely to the Guidelines Checklist (downloadable file) will be given priority.

Authors are requested to submit the entire manuscript electronically. For new (not revised) submissions: (1) the entire manuscript file (text, references, tables, figures, plates) should be saved in Portable Document Format (as a pdf file or files); and (2) In addition, save the text only (including references and table and figure captions) as a Word file (.doc format) so reviewers have the option of editing and placing comments in the electronic file. Email the files as attachments to the Editor at


It is expected that papers will be well organized and the results presented clearly and succinctly. American spelling and usage according to Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary are followed by the Journal and Allen Press Publishing, Inc. Authors whose first language is not English are strongly encouraged to have their manuscripts read by a native English-speaking colleague before submission. When in doubt about format and usage, authors should rely on the Guidelines Checklist before referring to a recent Journal issue.

Submit a carefully checked typescript, including all tables and illustrations, in electronic form. Initial and revised submissions before acceptance should be in the .pdf format, with an additional Word (.doc) file of the text, references, appendices, captions, and tables for the (optional) use of reviewers if they wish to comment directly within the manuscript.

Side-margins are 2.54 cm (1 inch). All pages are numbered (align-center in footer). Lines are not numbered. All tables, figures, and plates have captions and are cited in the text in numerical order. Text including references, appendices, tables (unless tables are detailed, in which case prepare them as you would figures), figure captions and plate descriptions all are double-spaced. Text font is Times New Roman, preferably 12 pt. Language and spelling are U.S. English. If English is your second language, the manuscript should be proofed by a colleague fluent in English or a professional copyediting service.


Page 1 begins with, in order from top to bottom and aligned-center (1) right running head (RRH) title, (2) LEFT RUNNING HEAD (LRH) TITLE, (3) FULL TITLE, (4) Author’s Name(s) (small caps), and (5) Mailing Address if there is only one (see below if more).

Left running head is indicated as LRH: last name(s) of ONE OR TWO authorS; for more than two authors it is LAST NAME OF senior author and others. Right running head (RRH) is the running title suggested by the author. Running heads are not to exceed a total of 40 characters and spaces, and all letters are capitalized.

Title is typed with caps lock off, then the font format is converted to all caps, and aligned center.

Coauthored papers have “footnotes” indicating multiple addresses and the e-mail address of the correspondence author (to whom proofs will be sent). These are below authors and aligned left. Do not use Word’s footnote tool, which hyperlinks authors with footnotes. If hyperlinked, remove the superscript numbers following authors, and replace them as nonlinked text.

Addresses are sufficient for postal delivery.


Page 2 is the Abstract. It should be a concise summary of your study and include the principal findings and major conclusions of the paper. It should not cite figures or references. If new taxa are described, they are included in the abstract.


General Instructions

Text begins on page 3. FIRST-ORDER HEADINGS are fully capitalized and centered, with line skipped above and below. SECOND-ORDER HEADINGS are in small caps and centered, with line skipped above and below. Third-Order Headings are italicized and aligned-left, with line skipped above and below. Text paragraphs (Abstract through References) are aligned-left; no lines skipped between them. Beginning of paragraphs are right-indented 0.5" (1.27 cm). Lines are not skipped between successive paragraphs. All empty spaces in within lines of text (e.g., after period at end of sentence) are single (not double) spaces. Word’s hyphenation tool is not used. All tables and illustrations are mentioned in text and numbered in the order cited. When citing more than two authors, “and others” (not “et al.”) is used.

Multiple publications by same author(s) in same year are distinguished by letters in sequence (e.g., 1975a, 1975b) according to first mention in text. Multiple citations in same year by same senior author “and others” also are distinguished this way. (See REFERENCES)

Nested citations within main text are ordered first by year, then alphabetically. Informal communications are indicated by mode and date, and without abbreviations, such as: (written communication, 1986), or (communication, 1989) instead of (personal communication). Cited figures cited (in parentheses) are abbreviated (e.g., Fig. 5); those not in parentheses or within synonymies are not. Table is always capitalized and never abbreviated.

No sentences begin with a numeral or an abbreviation such as “DSDP” or “G. bulloides.” Instead, spell out the number or abbreviation. A comma always follows “e.g.” or “i.e.,” and they are not italicized. English equivalents of most other Latin expressions are used in the text (excluding formal taxonomic sections) whenever possible. Abbreviated units are not followed by a period. A space should separate the value from an abbreviation of distance, time, or dimension, but not from those of temperature or percent.

Time abbreviations for ages are ka and Ma; for intervals they are kyr and Myr. No spaces are used with symbols (e.g., 5%, 5 C. 55˚55'55"N, ×55, 55%, δ18O, ~55, >55, <55) except for operators in math expressions and equations (e.g., 5 × 55, N = 55, 55 > 5). Equations have letters, but not numerals, italicized.

All genera and species are italicized, but modifiers (cf., aff., s.s., s.l..) and punctuation marks (?, “, ”) are not. Modifiers must be followed by the first letter or standard abbreviation of the genus (e.g., Globigerina cf. G. bulloides; ?Globorotalia aff. Glr. menardii). First mention in text (not abstract) of species or lower-rank taxon (including non-foram, excluding biozones) should be followed by its author (in parentheses if species was originally assigned to a different genus; including the date is arbitrary). Exceptions are if these data are provided in a table or appendix included in the article (not in the online repository), or in captions for figures that include images of all species mentioned in text. Genus is spelled out in full when first mentioned in a section, at the beginning of sentences, when followed by a modifier, and whenever needed for clarity (first mention in paragraph is often appropriate).

Closing quotation mark is placed after punctuation mark (e.g., “. . . end of sentence.”). Hyphen (-) separates compound noun or adjective; n dash (–) used for a range and as a negative or minus symbol; m dash (―) is used without a space before or after and separates thoughts―they should generally be avoided within sentences. Back-to-back parentheses generally should be avoided by using a semi-colon; an exception is when a species name is followed by its author in parentheses. Parentheses within parentheses should be avoided by using outer brackets.


Use the following example for formatting. (Other italicized subheadings can be used.)

Order Foraminiferida Eichwald, 1830
Suborder Globigerinina Delage and Hérouard, 1896
Superfamily Planomalinacea Bolli, Loeblich and Tappan, 1957
Family Globigerinelloididae Longoria, 1974

Genus Hastigerinoides Brönnimann, 1952 emended
Type species: Hastigerinella alexanderi Cushman, 1931, p. 87.

Hastigerinella (Hastigerinoides) Brönnimann in Brönnimann, 1952, p. 52.
Hastigerinoides Brönnimann-emended in Bolli, Loeblich and Tappan, 1957, p. 24.

Original description.  “Test stellate, planispiral in the adult, possibly trochospiral in young stages. Chambers of adult subglobular to  . . ..
Emended description.  Test planispiral to low trochospiral, biumbilicate. Chambers globular in the earlier stage and clavate to . . .

Hastigerinoides alexanderi (Cushman, 1931)
Pl. 1, figs. 1-4

Hastigerinella alexanderi Cushman in Cushman 1931, p. 87, pl. 11, figs. 6-9 (Upper Cretaceous, Austin Chalk, Texas, United States).
Hastigerinella alexanderi Cushman in Cushman, 1946, p. 148, pl. 61, figs. 4-7 (Upper Cretaceous, Gulf Region, United States).

Emended description. Test planispiral or, more rarely, very low trochospiral. Earlier chambers are globular, the . . .
Remarks. The original description of Cushman (1931, p.87) is herein emended to accommodate the test ultrastructure and porosity features. Hastigerinoides alexanderi differs from . . .
Stratigraphic range. Upper Santonian (Dicarinella asymetrica Biozone). 
Geographic distribution. Species restricted to the western South Atlantic (Rio Grande Rise . . .

If the article is focused on the systematics of a particular taxonomic group, the author and date attached to each nomen in this section may be treated as a citation for inclusion in the REFERENCES.


Time and time-rock terms should be capitalized only when indicating formally defined stratigraphic units (examples: Early Tertiary; Upper Cretaceous; late Miocene). If preceded by a specific name, "zone" or "zonule" will be capitalized. In referring to DSDP or ODP material, capitalize "Hole," "Core," "Section" or "Sample" when followed by numerals.



References are in nested fashion, first alphabetically by senior author. Multiple papers are arranged in the following order: (1) same single authors by date, (2) two authors alphabetized then by date, and (3) three or more authors by date, then alphabetically. Letter suffixes are used to distinguish different papers that would otherwise have identical citations (e.g., Jones and others, 1988) in text. Example:

Able and Smith 1991
Jones, 1990a
Jones, 1990b
Jones, 1992
Jones and Smith 1975a
Jones and Smith 1975b
Jones, Able, and Smith, 1988a
Jones, Smith, and Able, 1988b
Smith and Jones, 1968
Smith, Jones, and Able, 1966
Smith, Able, and Jones, 1972

Able and Smith, 1991
Jones, 1990a
———, 1990b
———, 1992
———, and Smith, 1975a
———, and ———, 1975b
———, Able, and Smith ,1988a
———, Smith, and Able, 1988b
Smith and Jones, 1968
———, ———, and Able,1966
———, Able, and Jones, 1972

Different kinds of references are properly formatted. If you have an EndNote bibliographic database, click on this link to download the jforamresearch.ens style file. [Note: Remove hyperlinks and check references, as some reordering and reformatting will likely be needed to fully conform with the JFR style.]

Common examples are:

Journal article
Malmgren, B. A., and Kennett, J. P., 1976, Test size variation in Globigerina bulloides in response to Quaternary palaeoceanographic changes: Nature, v. 275, p. 123-124.

Carpenter, W. B., Parker, W. K., and Jones, T. R., 1862, Introduction to the Study of Foraminifera: Ray Society, London, 319 p.

Article or chapter in book
Iaccarino, S., 1985, Mediterranean Miocene and Pliocene planktic foraminifera, in Bolli, H. M., Saunders, J. B., and Perch-Nielsen, K. (eds.), Plankton Stratigraphy: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p. 283-314.

Authors Names are in small caps with last name first; author’s initials are spaced, the conjunction “and” is lower case) and name suffixes (Jr. is small caps, III is upper case) follow the author’s initials and a comma (e.g., Smith, A. B., Jr., and . . .) .  Include all authors; do not substitute with “and others.”

After an initial reference, three extended (connecting) m-dashes are used in place of each name of authors of more than one publication.

If the reference is in an article or chapter in an edited volume, editors names are not in small caps. Example: , in Smith, A. B., and Jones, T. S. (eds.), and followed by the Volume Title, Publisher, City, and pages of article (not the entire book). If more than two editors, substitute “and others” for those that follow the first one.

Titles of articles (e.g., Taxonomy of benthic foraminifera) are not ALL CAPS or in Title Case.  Journal and book titles are in title case (e.g., Journal of Foraminiferal Research; Plankton Stratigraphy). Journals are spelled out in full. Issue numbers are not included if pagination is continuous within the volume number. (Most modern journals do this.)

Cross-check references with citations in the text. Print References to check off as you go through the text. If you prefer, you can cross-check without printing by whatever method works for you (e.g., highlight all References then split the page view so the references are in the lower part. In the upper part, scan from the beginning of your manuscript for citations and remove the highlighting from the corresponding entry in References. If any remain highlighted afterwards, perform a search to determine if was not cited or simply overlooked as you scanned through the text.)

References “in press” include the name of the journal or book. References in preparation are cited as “unpublished data.” Page numbers are separated by an n dash (–), not a hyphen (-). Appropriate symbols are used. Symbols ' and  " (not apostrophes or quotation marks) are used for latitude and longitude. The multiplication symbol is preferred (not the letter x or X), and the minus or negative symbol is the n-dash (not a hyphen).


Secondary tables or figures are appendices numbered in sequence of their citation in the main text and placed after the REFERENCES section. Authors should consider using the online depository for appendices considered unnecessary in the publication but which they wish to make available. The online repository should also be used for any appendix that is too large to be formatted for the journal or requires many pages. The caption is included in sequence with the others at the end of the article, but ending this addition:

This [table/figure] can be found on the Cushman Foundation website in the JFR Article Data Repository ( as item number JFR_DR (the year and number suffix of the item number will be added later by the Editor).


Tables are prepared with the Word table tool. Font is Times New Roman and lines are double-spaced (unless very detailed; see below). Each table is on a separate page at end of text, labelled in the upper right corner with the senior author’s name and the table number. Particularly detailed and complex tables are single-spaced and designed to fit or be reduced to a single-column width of 8.3 cm or double-column width of 17.8 cm. Entries in first (left) column are aligned left, subsequent columns are aligned center. Table captions are on a separate page immediately following the References section of the text.


Beginning in 2010, all illustrations are numbered figures (none are plates). If a composite figure consists of a few images, each image is labelled with an upper-cased letter beginning with A (i.e., A, B, C) and cited in the text by its figure number and letter (e.g., Fig. 5A). On a traditional “plate” that has many images of specimens, each image is numbered in sequence beginning with 1 (1, 2, 3). Multiple views of a specimen in the same figure are best linked by the addition of a lower-case letter (e.g., 2a, 2b, 2c). Specimen images on these figures are cited in the text as the figure number followed by a decimal and the specimen number (e.g., Fig. 2.3) and, if appropriate, a letter suffix (e.g., Fig. 2.3b).

Figures that are image composites consist of a figure number followed by a title, then a bold-faced number preceding each image description that follows.
Example: Figure 2. Foraminifera from Bikini Atoll.. 1 Elphidium sp. A.  2-4,  E. sp. B. 5, 6 . . .

Photographs, artwork, and drafting are of professional quality. Line drawings are designed to fit or be reduced to a single-column width of 8.3 cm (7 in) or double-column width of 17.8 cm (3.25 in). Scale bars are used to indicate actual sizes. Any magnifications included in the caption must accurately reflect the final size when published. Figures on plates are of uniform contrast and density, placed on a contrasting background, and arranged to make the most economical use of space. Size of letters, numbers, and symbols, and line thicknesses, are appropriate and consistent, especially when the illustration is reduced to the width of one or two columns. All figures are numbered in sequence of first mention in the text. All appendix, table, and figure captions are listed in that order beginning on a separate page at the end of the manuscript, not on the illustration page. Each illustration is labelled with first author’s last name and Figure number in the upper right corner of the page, not within or immediately adjacent to the illustration.

NOTE: If your manuscript is accepted for publication in the JFR, you will receive an e-mail linking you to the site for uploading image files. You will need to provide a high-resolution digital file of each figure in one of the following formats: .tif, .eps, .psd (Adobe Photoshop), .ai (Adobe Illustrator), .cdr (CorelDraw), .cvs (Canvas), or .pdf (Adobe Acrobat). If using .pdf format, all fonts and graphic images must be embedded. The accepted resolution for line art is 1000 dpi (dots per inch, which is the same as ppi [pixels per inch]). Grayscale images should be at least 450 dpi; if there is a combination of line and grayscale images in the figure it should be at least 600 dpi. Save line art and grayscale images in grayscale mode. You must have sufficient funds to cover any color printing. Once you have provided the high-resolution color file(s), a price quote will be obtained from the publisher (there is no standard fee).


Page proofs and instructions for ordering reprints, will be sent by email to the corresponding author from Allen Press Publishing Company. Proofs must be corrected and returned to the Editor within 72 hours. Substantial changes in proof may be charged to the author.